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Tuberous sclerosis chromosome

What causes Tuberous Sclerosis? TSC is caused by defects, or mutations, on two genes—TSC1 and TSC2. Only one of the genes needs to be affected for TSC to be present. The TSC1 gene is on chromosome 9 and produces a protein called hamartin. The TSC2 gene is on chromosome 16 and produces the protein tuberin. Scientists believe these proteins act as growth suppressors by inhibiting the activation of a protein called mTOR Tuberous sclerosis complex is a rare multisystem autosomal dominant genetic disease that causes non-cancerous tumours to grow in the brain and on other vital organs such as the kidneys, heart, liver, eyes, lungs and skin. A combination of symptoms may include seizures, intellectual disability, developmental delay, behavioral problems, skin abnormalities, lung disease, and kidney disease. TSC is caused by a mutation of either of two genes, TSC1 and TSC2, which code for the proteins hamartin and

Tuberous Sclerosis Fact Sheet National Institute of

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder that affects multiple systems. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and is characterized by an increased predisposition to hamartoma formation Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal-dominant, neurocutaneous, multisystem disorder characterized by cellular hyperplasia and tissue dysplasia. The genetic cause is mutations in the TSC1 gene, found on chromosome 9q34, and TSC2 gene, found on chromosome 16p13 Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the widespread development of distinctive tumors termed hamartomas. TSC-determining loci have been mapped to chromosomes 9q34 (TSC1) and 16p13 (TSC2). The TSC1 gene was identified from a 900-kilobase region containing at least 30 genes Tuberous sclerosis is caused by an alteration (mutation) in one of two different genes, the TSC1 gene or the TSC2 gene. Genes provide instructions for creating proteins that play a critical role in many functions of the body. When a mutation of a gene occurs, the protein product may be faulty, inefficient, or absent Background: Tuberous Sclerosis Complex is an autosomal dominant multi-system disorder with an incidence of about 1 in 6000 live births. Defects in either TSC1 (* 605284) or TSC2 (* 191092) genes.

Tuberous sclerosis George A, Kanish B, Bhatia A - Indian

Tuberous sclerosis - Wikipedi

Tuberous Sclerosis - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshel

Ionizing radiation can damage DNA and, therefore, is a risk factor for cancer. Eker rats, which carry a heterozygous germline mutation in the tumor‐suppressor gene tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (Tsc2), are susceptible to radiation‐induced renal carcinogenesis.However, the molecular mechanisms involved in Tsc2 inactivation are unclear. We subjected Fischer 344 × Eker (Long Evans Tsc2 +/−. Keywords: lymphangiomyomatosis; tuberous sclerosis; genes; suppressor; tumor; loss of heterozygosity; chromosomes; human; pair 16. Lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease that affects almost exclusively women ().LAM consists of a diffuse proliferation of smooth muscle cells around lymphatic vessels, blood vessels, and airways Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a clinically distinctive autosomal dominant disorder with a population frequency of 1 in 10,000. It affects numerous body systems including skin, brain and kidney, but the etiology is unknown. Linkage studies have indicated genetic heterogeneity

Tuberous sclerosis complex - PubMe

TSC is a rare genetic disease causing benign tumours to grow in the brain and on other vital organs. A combination of symptoms may include seizures, developmental delay, behavioural problems, skin abnormalities, lung and kidney disease. Regulatio A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that infantile severe polycystic kidney disease with tuberous sclerosis (PKDTS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving the PKD1 (601313) and TSC2 (191092) genes on chromosome 16p13.3 Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder affecting cellular differentiation, proliferation, and migration early in development, resulting in a variety of hamartomatous lesions that.. tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), demonstrating for the first time that the two-hit tumor suppressor gene model applies to the TSC- region on chromosome 16 between angiomyolipoma and pul-monary LAM cells from two patients with sporadic LAM to determine whether these cells appear to have a common ge Tuberous Sclerosis Map Position of the TSC2 Locus on Chromosome llq and Future Prospects MOYRA SMITH, K. YOSHIYAMA, C. WAGNER, P. FLODMAN, AND B. SMITH Department of Pediatrics University of California, Irvine Irvine, California 9271 7 Tuberous sclerosis is a disorder characterized by hamartias and hamartoma

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder of unknown aetiology that affects numerous body systems including skin, brain and kidneys. Some TSC has been linked to chromosome. tuberous sclerosis , von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and ataxia telangiectasia . With the exception of Sturge-Weber syndrome, which is caused by a noninherited developmental anomaly of neural crest derivatives , and ataxia telangiectasia , which follows an autosomal recessive inheritanc

Identification of the tuberous sclerosis gene TSC1 on

  1. Two genes have been identified that can cause tuberous sclerosis complex. Only one of the genes needs to be affected for TSC to be present. The TSC1 gene is located on chromosome 9 and directs production of the protein called hamartin. The other gene, TSC2, is located on chromosome 16 and directs production of the protein called tuberin
  2. ority of patients have a known family history of TSC). It is due to defect in chromosome 9 TSC1 gene (hamartin) and chromosome 16 TSC2 (tuberin
  3. Using tuberous sclerosis families in which linkage to the TSC1 locus on chromosome 9 had been excluded, Kandt et al. (1992) demonstrated linkage with D16S283, the closest marker on the proximal side of the locus for polycystic kidney disease type 1 , on chromosome 16p13. A lod score of 9.50 at theta = 0.02 was observed; 1 family independently.
  4. The strongest evidence for the tumour suppressor hypothesis was provided in 1994 when it was reported that some of the hamartomas of tuberous sclerosis patients showed loss of heterozygosity, either in the chromosomal region 9q34 or in 16p13. 8 9 Markers on 9q34 or 16p13 that were heterozygous in the patient were homozygous in the tumour
  5. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a tumor suppressor gene syndrome in which the manifestations can include seizures, mental retardation, autism; benign tumors of the brain, retina, kidney, heart, and skin; and pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM). Tuberous sclerosis was first described by Bourneville in 1880; he referred to the characteristic brain lesions as 'tubers' because of their potato-like consistency

Tuberous Sclerosis - NORD (National Organization for Rare

In fibroblasts cultured from biopsies of the skin lesions of six patients with tuberous sclerosis (TS) there was a variable but consistent degree of karyotypic variation. Premature centromere disjunction (PCD) of all or part of the chromosomes, micronuclei, an increased incidence of breaks, dicentric chromosomes and the presence of polyploid metaphases were found in all cultures. The PCD was. We have previously demonstrated allele loss in hamartomas from patients with tuberous sclerosis for markers spanning the tuberous sclerosis gene on chromosome 16p13.3 (TSC2). Germline deletions in the TSC2 gene have been shown in 5% of patients with tuberous sclerosis (TSC) Tuberous sclerosis is most frequently characterized by loss of function mutations in tuberous sclerosis-1 (TSC1) or tuberous sclerosis-2 (TSC2) genes located on chromosomes 9 and 16, respectively. Tuberous sclerosis caused by TSC1 is due to a heterozygous mutation of the TSC1 gene located on chromosome 9q34, which codes for hamartin protein It is possible that a tuberous sclerosis related tumor or complication could cause lagophthalmos. If you or a loved one has tuberous sclerosis and is experiencing lagophthalmos we strongly recommend that you speak with a geneticist or other healthcare professional who can help you determine the underlying cause of the condition Tuberous Sclerosis Aleksandr Vasilyev, MD, PhD Key Facts Etiology/Pathogenesis TSC1 gene, chromosome 9q34: Hamartin TSC2 gene, chromosome 16p13: Tuberin Chromosome 16p deletion may result in TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene syndrome with early onset PKD Clinical Issues Major features Facial angiofibromas, ungual or periungual fibromas More than 3 hypomelanotic macules, shagreen patch Retinal.

(PDF) Identification of the Tuberous Sclerosis Gene TSC1

Video: Tuberous sclerosis Radiology Reference Article

Tuberous Sclerosis. A 1-year-old boy presents to the pediatric emergency department with abnormal shaking. The parents decribe these shaking episodes as sudden and brief symmetric contractions of his upper and lower extremities. The infant sustains the contraction for a few seconds and subsequently relaxes. On physical examination he continues. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a dominantly inherited disorder of hamartomas and hamartia with an estimated population frequency of 1 in 10,000. Cloning of the Tuberous Sclerosis Gene on Chromosome 9q Northrup, Hope University of Texas Health Science Center Houston, Houston, TX, United States. Search 23 grants from Hope Northrup Search. Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant condition characterised by tumour-like malformations (hamartomas) in the brain and other organs. A proportion of hamartomas from patients with TSC show loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for DNA markers in the region of either the TSCI gene on chromosome 9834 or the TSC2 gene on 16p13.3. This implies that these lesions are clonal. We have studied X.

Identification and characterization of the tuberous

Cosmid Contigs from the Tuberous Sclerosis Candidate

Chromosome abnormalities in tuberous sclerosis SpringerLin

At the recent tuberous sclerosis complex consensus conference, the clinical diagnostic criteria for tuberous sclerosis complex were simplified and revised to reflect both new clinical information about tuberous sclerosis complex and an improved understanding of the disorder derived from molecular genetic studies INTRODUCTION. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder that is characterized by pleomorphic features involving many organ systems, including multiple benign hamartomas of the brain, eyes, heart, lung, liver, kidney, and skin [].The expression of the disease varies substantially The tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a multisystem, autosomal dominant disorder affecting children and adults, results from mutations in one of two genes, TSC1 (encoding hamartin) or TSC2 (encodin.. A locus, or loci, elsewhere in the genome is likely to account for tuberous sclerosis in most non-chromosome 9 linked families. Full text Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page A more severe phenotype, tuberous sclerosis 2 , is caused by mutations in the TSC2 gene on chromosome 16p13.3 and accounts for the majority of cases of tuberous sclerosis complex. Genotyping is necessary to determine which mutation is responsible for the TS complex in each case as the phenotypic differences are inadequate to distinguish.

(PDF) Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), also known as Epiloia or Bourneville-Pringle disease, is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome with variable clinical expression. It is a multisystem disease that may be associated with hamartomas in various organs in an unpredictable manner. It most often affects the skin and central nervous system. 1 Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a rare, multi-system genetic disease that causes benign tumours to grow in the brain and on other vital organs such as the kidneys, heart, eyes, lungs, and skin. A combination of symptoms may include seizures, developmental delay, behavioural problems and skin abnormalities, as well as lung and kidney disease Linkage of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), an autosomal dominant disorder, to markers on chromosome 9 was reported first in 1987. This assignment was confirmed by an international collaborative study that suggested more than one locus may be responsible for the phenotype Angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are renal tumors that occur both sporadically and in association with tuberous sclerosis (TSC). TSC is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hamartomatous lesions in multiple organs. Two TSC loci are recognized: TSC1 on 9q34 and TSC2 on 16p13. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the TSC1 and TSC2 loci in lesions from TSC patients has recently been reported. Lesions.

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive and often fatal interstitial lung disease characterized by a diffuse proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells in the lungs. LAM is of unusual interest biologically because it affects almost exclusively young women. LAM can occur as an isolated disorder (sporadic LAM) or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex The European Chromosome 16 Tuberous Sclerosis Consortium (1993). Identification and characterization of the tuberous sclerosis gene on chromosome 16 . Cell 75 , 1305 - 1315 tuberous sclerosis; genetics; Tuberous sclerosis is a neurocutaneous autosomal dominant disorder with an estimated prevalence of 9/100 000 population and a varied clinical presentation. 1 Neurological presentation of tuberous sclerosis occurs typically in children with seizures and intellectual impairment. However approximately 50% of patients who fulfil the diagnostic criteria have normal.

Tuberous sclerosis complex: MedlinePlus Genetic

Tuberous Sclerosis is caused by a mutation on one of two genes. TSC1 is a gene on chromosome 9 and TSC2 is a gene on chromosome 16. Genetic testing for TSC looks for a mutation on one of these two genes. If one is found, you may be told that you have either TSC1 or TSC2. There has been a lot of research that looks at how the gene mutation may. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a mutation in one of two known genes. The TSC1 gene is located on chromosome 9q34 and the TSC2 gene on chromosome 16p13. The precise location of the TSC2 gene was found in 1993 and it is now known to be responsible for the production of the protein tuberin which suppresses. Approximately one third of cases of tuberous sclerosis are familial and caused by mutations in two tumor suppressor genes, TSC1 and TSC2. The other two thirds of cases are sporadic and due to spontaneous mutations [].TSC1 is located on chromosome 9q34 and encodes the protein hamartin []. TSC2 is found on chromosome 16p13 and encodes the protein tuberin [6, 7] Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) Frequency : 1/6000-1/10000 birth. First genetic cause of epilepsy associated with mental retardation = epiloia. 2/3 of cases are sporadic, 1/3 are inherited. Genetic heterogeneity : two genes, TSC1 and TSC2, account for the majority of cases Tuberous sclerosis is a neurocutaneous syndrome formerly described by Bourneville in 18801 (also known as Bournev-ille disease). This entity is an inherited autosomal dominant disease caused by mutation or deletion of two genes: one on chromosome 9, known as TSC1, and the other one on chromosome 16, known as TSC22

• Diagnosing tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a challenge 1-3 • TSC was underdiagnosed until the 1980s 1 • Population prevalence of TSC was estimated to be between 1:100,000 and 1:200,000 • Current birth incidence of TSC is estimated to be between 1:6,000 to 1:10,000, with a population prevalence of approximately 1:20,000 Tuberous sclerosis (also called Tuberous sclerosis complex-TSC) is an inherited neurocutaneous and multisystemic disorder characterized by hamartomas (sclerotic tubers), which most notably affect the skin, brain, kidneys, heart and eyes. 1, 2 TSC results in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and neurologic sequelae

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder resulting from a mutation of either the TSC1 gene on chromosome 9q34[] or the TSC2 gene on chromosome 16p13[].Estimated prevalence rates range from 1/6,800 to 1/11,400[3, 4] and birth incidence estimates range from 1/6,000 to 1/15,000[].Intellectual ability forms a bimodal distribution, with ≈ 30% of individuals showing profound. Academic research paper on topic Linkage of an important gene locus for tuberous sclerosis to a chromosome 16 marker for polycystic kidney disease article. Linkage of an important gene locus for tuberous sclerosis to a chromosome 16 marker for polycystic kidney disease. ABSTRACT Cells from tuberous sclerosis (TS) patients have been reported to show hypersensitivity to X‐rays or radiomimetic chemicals, N‐methyl‐N′‐nitro‐N‐nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). We investigated the frequencies of chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), and cell cycle kinetics in MNNG‐treated lymphocytes from 7 patients with TS and 7 controls. There were no.

J:313693 Czai GA, et al., Synaptic Alterations in a Transgenic Model of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Relevance to Autism Spectrum Disorders. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Sep 17;22(18) Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Sep 17;22(18 The genes responsible for tuberous sclerosis complex have been identified. In 1993, TSC2, located on chromosome 16, was the first gene discovered to be involved in tuberous sclerosis complex.TSC1 is located on chromosome 9 and was identified in 1997.TSC1 encodes for the protein hamartin; TSC2, encodes for the protein tuberin. Mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2, which are tumor suppressor genes. Summary: Purpose: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a condition that is frequently associated with intractable, early-onset epilepsy, and often is first seen as infantile spasms. If medications fail and no clear epileptogenic tuber is identified, nonpharmacologic therapies are often attempted. The use of the ketogenic diet specifically for children with TSC and epilepsy has not been. Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by tumour-like malformations (hamartomas) of the skin, brain, heart, kidneys and other organs. Half of patients are mentally retarded and most have seizures with one or more of the characteristic dermatological lesions: facial angiofibromas, hypopigmented macules, forehead. Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurocutaneous syndrome characterized by a variety of hamartomatous lesions in various organs. TS can chromosome 16 (16p13) and encodes a 200-kDa protein called tuberin. The location of the TSC2 gene is contiguous with the PKD1 gene, which can explain why multiple.

Tuberous sclerosis is a phakomatosis with dysplasias and hamartomas frequently affecting the brain, eyes, kidneys, heart, and skin .It may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with variable penetrance , but 60% to 70% of cases occur sporadically.Three different mutations have been associated with the disorder, located on chromosomes 9, 11, and 16 Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder with loci assigned to chromosomes 9 and 16. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), we identified five TSC-associated deletions at 16p 13.3. These were mapped to a 120 kb region that was cloned in cosmids and from which four genes were isolated. One gene, designated TSC2, was interrupted by all five PFGE deletions. Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal-dominant disorder caused by a genetic mutation in 1 of 2 different genes. Chromosomal bands 9q34.3 and 16p13.3 are the loci for the 2 genes; they are respectively called TSC1 (tuberous sclerosis complex 1) and TSC2 (tuberous sclerosis complex 2) ( 40; 53 )

Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal-dominant, neurocutaneous, multisystem disorder characterized by cellular hyperplasia, tissue dysplasia, and multiple organ hamartomas. The most commonly identified clinical presentations are epilepsy (infantile spasms), autism and cognitive impairment, and neonatal cardiac rhabdomyomas Diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis Tuberous sclerosis was first clearly documented in 1880byBourneville (henceBourneville's disease or epiloia) tuberous sclerosis is on chromosome 9,15 linked to the gene locus for the ABObloodgroup, tuberous sclerosis could be said to have come of age. Th We have identified three groups of growth-constraint genes using mosaic genetic screens in Drosophila melanogaster, including PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10), and the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes, Tsc1 and Tsc2. our studies show that all three groups of genes participate in mechanisms that regulate organ and organism size in animals Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder in which renal manifestations are prominent. Multiple losses of chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21 are considered to be. Tuberous sclerosis or tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant Autosomal dominant Autosomal inheritance, both dominant and recessive, refers to the transmission of genes from the 22 autosomal chromosomes. Autosomal dominant diseases are expressed when only 1 copy of the dominant allele is inherited

Neurocutaneous

Interstitial chromosomal deletion of the tuberous

TSC1. من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة. اذهب إلى التنقل اذهب إلى البحث. TSC complex subunit 1. المعرفات. الأسماء المستعارة. tumor suppressor, tuberous sclerosis 1 protein, TSC1, truncated hemartin, hamartin. معرفات خارجية. نمط التعبير عن الحمض. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder that affects multiple systems. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and is characterized by an increased predisposition to hamartoma formation. [1] It results from mutations in the genes TSC1 and TSC2 and is known for causing neurological disorders including epilepsy and.

Imaging in Phakomatoses

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that affects multiple organ systems and is primarily characterized by the development of benign neoplasms of the brain. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder of unknown aetiology that affects numerous body systems including skin, brain and kidneys. Some TSC has been linked to chromosome 9, additional TSC genes on chromosomes 11 and 12 have been proposed, but the majority of TSC families remain unlinked Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a genetic neuro-cutaneous disorder characterized by formation of benign tumors, especially affecting the skin and the central nervous system. The tumors are usually either benign hamartias or hamartomas. Only very rarely, are cancerous hamartoblastomas encountered. Dermatological features include the presence of. Editor—Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a dominantly inherited disease of high penetrance, characterised pathologically by the presence of hamartomata in multiple organ systems. Well known clinical manifestations include epilepsy, learning difficulties, behavioural problems, and skin lesions. Many patients have renal lesions, usually angiomyolipomata (AML), which can cause clinical.

This is the more severe and more common of the two tuberous sclerosis complex phenotypes. It is caused by mutations in the TSC2 gene encoding tuberin on chromosome 16p13.3. Genotyping is necessary to determine which mutation is responsible for the TS complex in each case as the phenotypic differences are inadequate to distinguish between types 1 and 2 Tuberous Sclerosis is an autosomal dominant neurological disorder characterized by the grown of benign tumors in the brain and other organs. Tuberous Sclerosis is caused by mutations of tumor suppressor genes, including Hamartin (TSC1) on chromosome 9, and Tuberin (TSC2) on chromosome 16. tumor suppressor gene.These mutations cause the development of hamartomas in various organs Yu, J, et al. Chromosome 16 Loss of Heterozygosity in Tuberous Sclerosis and Sporadic Lymphangiomyomatosis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 164, no. 8 Pt 1, 2001, pp. 1537-40

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) What is TSC? TSC is a genetic disorder that can affect multiple organs including the skin, brain, kidneys, heart and lungs. The incidence is reported to be between 1 in 5800 and 1 in 10000. What causes TSC? TSC is caused by a mutation in either the TSC1 gene on chromosome 9 or the TSC2 gene on chromosome 16 The incidence of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is as high as 1 in 6,000 live births. 1,2 It occurs with equal frequency in males and females and in different races and ethnicities. Hereditary transmission is evident in approximately one-third of patients. TSC1 maps to chromosome band 9q34 Tuberous sclerosis (also known as tuberous sclerosis complex [TSC]) is a multisystem genetic disorder that affects almost every organ in the body. Mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes lead to disruption of the TSC1-TSC2 intracellular protein complex, causing overactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein complex. The surveillance and management guidelines and clinical. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the widespread development of distinctive tumors termed hamartomas. TSC-determining loci have been mapped to chromosomes 9q34 (TSC1) and 16p13 (TSC2). The TSC1 gene was identified from a 900-kilobase region containing at least 30 genes. The 8.6-kilobase TSC1 transcript is widely expressed and encodes a protein. Share Linkage of an important gene locus for tuberous sclerosis to a chromosome 16 marker for polycystic kidney disease. Embed size(px) Link. Share.

This is a case study of tuberous sclerosis with unusually large facial angiofibromas. The patient had other intense skin manifestations. Histological findings in the angiofibroma included large and glial‐appearing cells specific for this disease. Karyotype analysis revealed a translocation of chromosome (12q-, 15q+) Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a relatively rare, autosomal dominant, and progressive neurocutaneous disorder involving multiple organs. Heterozygous mutations in the TSC1 gene located on chromosome 9 (9q34.13) or the TSC2 gene located on chromosome 16 (16p13.3) have been shown to be responsible for this disorder

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